Intake and output measurement
Potential issues to examine:
1. Is it valuable?
2. What are the indications for placing a client on I&O?
3. Is it being done in a reliable and effective manner?
4. Why is it important?
- Chung, L. H., Chong, S., French, P. (2002). The efficiency of fluid balance charting: an evidence-based management project. Journal of Nursing Management, 10(2), 103-113. (EbscoHost)
- Epstein, C. D., Peerless, J. R. (2006). Weaning readiness and fluid balance in older critically ill surgical patients. American Journal of Critical Care, 15(1), 54-64. (Web) (EbscoHost)
- Wise, L. C., Mersch, J., Racioppi, J., Crosier, J., Thompson, C. (2000). Evaluating the reliability and utility of cumulative intake and output. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 14(3), 37-42. (EbscoHost)