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APA 7th ed. Highlights

This guide is to assist you in navigating the new 7th edition of the American Psychological Association (APA) Publication Manual.

What has changed in APA 7th ed.?

  1. The in-text citation for works with three or more authors (instead of six) is now shortened for all citations (including the first). Include only the first author’s name and “et al.”.
6th ed. First citation: (Taylor, Kotler, & Johnson, 2018)

7th ed.  

First citation: (Taylor et al., 2018)
  1. Citations for Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples has been added.  If the source is published, it should be cited and referenced by its source type (but should be analyzed carefully for the accurateness and appropriateness of its content).  If the source is oral, use an adjusted personal communication citation including nation/specific Indigenous group, location, and other relevant details.

7th ed.  

We spoke with Anna Grant (Haida Nation, lives in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, personal communication, April 2019) about . . .
  1. The publisher location (books) is no longer included in the reference.  *When the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher as well.
6th ed. Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

7th ed.  

Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. Simon & Schuster.
  American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).
  1. Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors (instead of seven) must be provided in the reference list.  For sources with 21+ authors, replace all authors after the 19th (except the final) with ellipses, followed by the final author.
6th ed. Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., … Lee, L. H. (2018).

7th ed.  

Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., Lewis, F., Lee, L. H., Cox, G., Harris, H. L., Martin, P., Gonzalez, W. L., Hughes, W., Carter, D., Campbell, C., Baker, A. B., Flores, T., Gray, W. E., Green, G., … Nelson, T. P. (2018).
  1. DOIs are formatted as hyperlinks. The label “DOI:” is no longer necessary.  To make a DOI hyperlinked, add the https://doi.org/ before the actual DOI (the number starting with 10.).  Use the https://doi.org/ beginning rather than older versions, such as http://dx.doi.org/
6th ed. doi: 10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449

7th ed.  

https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449
  1. URLs are no longer preceded by “Retrieved from”.​
6th ed. Worland, J. (2015, July 27). U.S. flood risk could be worse than we thought. Time. Retrieved from http://time.com/3973256/flooding-risk-coastal-cities/

7th ed.  

Worland, J. (2015, July 27). U.S. flood risk could be worse than we thought. Time. https://time.com/3973256/flooding-risk-coastal-cities/
  1. Do not include database information for works from most academic research databases (eg. CINAHL, EBSCOhost, Medline, Ovid, Science Direct, Wiley). It is assumed that both students & instructors have access to the same databases.  Provide a DOI (if available) or omit the retrieval information if a DOI is not available.

7th ed.  

one author
(no DOI)

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33.

 

multiple authors
(DOI available)
De Vries, R., Nieuwenhuijze, M., Buitendijk, S. E., & the members of Midwifery Science Work Group. (2018). What does it take to have a strong and independent profession of midwifery? Lessons from the Netherlands. Midwifery, 29(10), 1122-1128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2013.07.007
  1. Include the word ‘Article’ before an article number or eLocator for a journal article without a page range.​
6th ed. Burin, D., Kilteni, K., Rabuffeti, M., Slater, M., & Pia, L. (2019). Body ownership increases the interference between observed and executed movements. PLOS ONE14(1), e0209899.

7th ed.  

Burin, D., Kilteni, K., Rabuffeti, M., Slater, M., & Pia, L. (2019). Body ownership increases the interference between observed and executed movements. PLOS ONE14(1), Article e0209899.
  1. Article from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.  Treat like periodical articles but give the database in the Reference list in italics.

7th ed.  

Mehrholz, J., Pohl, M., Platz, T., Kugler, J., & Elsner, B. (2018). Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006876.pub5
  1. Article from the UpToDate database. Treat like periodical articles but give the year of the last update; include a retrieval date and URL. *A retrieval date is appropriate in this case because the entries in the database are intended to change frequently.

7th ed.  

Morey, M.C. (2019). Physical activity and exercise in older adults. UpToDate. Retrieved July 22, 2019,
from 
https://www-uptodate-com.athena.rrc.mb.ca:2047/
contents/practical-guidelines-for-implementing-a-strength-training-
program-for-adults?earch=physical%20activity%20and%20exercise
​%20in%20older%20adults&source=search_result&selectedTitle=
2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2
  1. Ebooks from academic databases are treated the same as print books.  Do not include database information. *Include a DOI or non-database URL if available.
6th ed. Zeanah, C. H. (2019). Handbook of infant mental health. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.athena.rrc.mb.ca:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1843598&site=eds-live

7th ed.  

Zeanah, C. H. (2019). Handbook of infant mental health. The Guilford Press.
  1. Webpages (including gray literature, reports, news websites, organizational websites) are referenced slightly differently than periodicals.  An article should only be considered a webpage when it does not fit into any other reference category.  Italicizing the title and source of a webpage is opposite to the italicizing of a periodical (journal, magazine, newspapers, blogs).

7th ed.
(Online Newspaper Article - Periodical)

Guarino, B. (2017, December 4). How will humanity react to alien life? Psychologists have some predictions. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/
speakingofscience/wp/2017/12/04/how-will-humanity-react-to-alien-life-psychologists-have-some-predictions
  

7th ed.  
(News Article – Webpage on a Website)

Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-positive. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/03/health/respect-toward-elderly-leads-to-long-life-intl/ndex.html
  1. Clear guidelines are provided for including contributors other than authors and editors. When citing a podcast episode, the host of the episode should be included; when citing a TV series episode, the writer and director of that episode are cited.

7th ed.  

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/series/423302056/hidden-brain
  1. For dictionary, thesaurus, and encyclopedia entries, use the source as author (if there is no person as author), not the entry/title.  Provide a retrieval date if the dictionary entries are intended to frequently change (such as the Merriam-Webster website).
6th ed. Self-report. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/self-report

7th ed.  

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Self-report. In Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary. Retrieved July 12, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/self-report
  1. Dozens of examples are included in Chapter 10 for online source types such as podcast episodes, social media posts, and YouTube videos. The use of emojis and hashtags are also explained.

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