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Indigenous Health & Well-Being

This guide is to assist you in researching topics related to Indigenous health. Here you will find links to books, ebooks, journals, databases, websites, and more.

What does Two-Spirit Mean?

The term two-spirit (also spelled 2-spirit or two-spirited) was coined by Myra Laramee in 1990. Two-spirit means different things to different people and different communities. One of the most commonly cited understandings of the term is a person who possesses both masculine and feminine spirits; however, two-spirit is used throughout English-speaking communities on Turtle Island to distinguish the wide variety of Indigenous concepts of gender and sexual diversity as separate from the European gender binary, which was violently imposed on Indigenous communities through Christianization and the residential school system. Within Indigenous cosmologies, gender and sexual diversity are viewed holistically, with people of many genders and sexualities holding important roles in families and communities.

Two-Spirit People

Library Resources