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Academic Writing and Citation

This guide provides time-tested strategies on becoming comfortable with the writing process, resources on citation styles, and information on how to avoid plagiarism.

Open Educational Resources (OER)

This page contains Open Textbooks which are a type of OER .“OER” stands for Open Educational Resource, these resources are available at zero cost and can be used and adapted and without permission. Check out the Library's OER page for more information.

OER for Faculty

OERs can be made available by instructors online and through the Campus Store using the same process as traditional textbooks. If you are interested in adopting an Open Textbook please visit Campus MB to adopt an Open textbook for your class and reach out to the Copyright Officer with questions or for support.




Citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers

This section crosses various styles (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) to provide guidance on citing Elders, Knowledge Keepers, and oral traditions from Indigenous peoples. You will also find books here that look more broadly at evaluating Indigenous sources and working respectfully with Elders. 

Alternative ways to cite Elders and Knowledge Keepers

APA, MLA and other popular styles have predefined ways of citing traditional knowledge, but there are alternatives that have been developed in collaboration with Indigenous communities to provide a more respectful way to document the oral stories and traditions that we use in our papers. What follows are some sources.

Please discuss the use of these templates with your instructor prior to using them, as they do deviate from the standard styles. 

More Than Personal Communication Citation templates for Elders and Knowledge Keepers

While working at NorQuest College Libraries, Lorisia MacLeod (James Smith Cree Nation) worked with the Indigenous Student Centre to develop new citation templates to be used in APA and MLA for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. These citation formats are meant to promote the culturally respectful use of Indigenous knowledge and people in research and challenge the status quo of who we cite. This was hosted by the Maskwacis Cultural College microlearning: https://continuingeducationi.blogspot...

Standard Citation Style

The MLA Handbook 8th Edition does not include explicit direction as to how to cite and respectfully acknowledge Indigenous Elders and Indigenous Knowledge Keepers (UBC).

Indigenous Style and Indigenous Information Literacy

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